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Use serverless functions to run on-demand, server-side code without having to manage a dedicated server.
Netlify’s command line interface (CLI) lets you configure continuous deployment straight from the command line. You can use Netlify CLI to run a local development server that you can share with others, run a local build and plugins, and deploy your site.
The sections below describe how to perform common tasks with Netlify CLI. You can also access a full command reference online, or get help within Netlify CLI.
To install Netlify CLI, make sure you have Node.js version 16.0.0 or later.
Then, run this command from any directory in your terminal:
npm install netlify-cli -g
This installs Netlify CLI globally, so you can run
netlify commands from any directory. You can check the version and find out some basic information about the tool with the following command:
Global versus local
Installing Netlify CLI globally means that your system always has the latest version, including any breaking changes. While global installation is appropriate for initial development and experimentation, for managing builds in a continuous integration (CI) environment, use local CLI installation instead.
When using Netlify CLI in a continuous integration (CI) environment such as GitHub Actions, CircleCI, or Travis CI, we recommend installing it locally as a development dependency instead of globally. This binds a specific CLI version to your project repository. To install Netlify CLI locally, run the following command from the root directory of your project:
npm install netlify-cli --save-dev
For CI environments, we also recommend using a lock file to guarantee reproducible builds and relying on an automated tool like renovate or dependabot to manage Netlify CLI version updates.
Netlify CLI uses an access token to authenticate with Netlify. You can obtain this token using the command line or in the Netlify UI.
If your team requires you to log in with single sign-on (SSO), your tokens will be denied access to the team by default. You can choose to grant access to the team when you obtain a new token. You must be logged in to the team with SSO to grant access to it.
To authenticate and obtain an access token using the command line, enter the following command from any directory:
This will open a browser window, asking you to log in with Netlify and grant access to Netlify CLI.
Once authorized, Netlify CLI stores your access token in a
config.json global configuration file. The Netlify CLI uses the token in this file automatically for all future commands.
You can find the Netlify CLI global configuration file,
config.json, under your user in these OS-specific locations:
You can generate an access token manually in your Netlify user settings for Personal access tokens.
Under Personal access tokens, select New access token.
Enter a description.
Select Generate token.
Copy the generated token to your clipboard. Once you navigate from the page, the token cannot be seen again.
Save the token as a
NETLIFY_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable in your terminal settings or in the UI of a Continuous Integration (CI) tool.
To revoke your user access token for Netlify CLI, go to your Netlify user Applications settings. The procedure for revoking access depends on how access was granted.
netlify logincommand, scroll to the Authorized applications section, and find Netlify CLI. Select Options > Revoke access.
By default, Netlify collects data on usage of Netlify CLI commands. We do this to improve the reliability and performance of Netlify CLI, and to help drive new features and improvements.
If you’d like to opt out of sending usage data, you can do so by editing the
telemetryDisabled property in the Netlify CLI
config.json. You can also do this with the command line:
# opt out of sharing usage data netlify --telemetry-disable # allow your usage to help shape development netlify --telemetry-enable
With continuous deployment, Netlify will automatically deploy new versions of your site when you push commits to your connected Git repository. This also facilitates features like Deploy Previews, branch deploys, and split testing. (Some of these features must be enabled in the Netlify UI.)
For repositories stored on GitHub.com, you can use Netlify CLI to connect your repository by running the following command from your local repository:
In order to connect your repository for continuous deployment, Netlify CLI will need access to create a deploy key and a webhook on the repository. When you run the command above, you’ll be prompted to log in to your GitHub account, which will create an account-level access token.
The access token will be stored in the Netlify CLI
config.json. Your login password will never be stored. You can revoke the access token at any time from your GitHub account settings; however, this will disable continuous deployment on all sites that were configured with that access token.
For repositories stored on GitLab, Bitbucket, or Azure DevOps, you can connect your repository manually with the
For repositories on GitHub, you can also connect your repository manually, if you prefer to give more limited, repository-only access for your repositories on GitHub.
From your local repository, run the following command:
netlify init --manual
The Netlify CLI will prompt you to set your deploy settings and then provide you with a deploy/access key and a webhook URL. You’ll need to manually add the key and webhook URL to your Git provider.
Netlify uses a deploy or access key to fetch your repository using ssh for building and deploying. The deploy key does not require write access.
Copy the key printed in the command line, then add it to your Git provider.
Your Git provider will send a message to this webhook when you push changes to your repository, triggering a new deploy on Netlify.
Copy the webhook address printed in the command line, then add the URL and webhook details to your Git provider. If available, the Content type should be set to
GitHub, GitLab, or BitBucket. Add the webhook address as the Payload URL for a new webhook in your repository’s settings. When selecting events to trigger the webhook, Push events will trigger production and branch deploys on watched branches, and Pull/Merge request events will trigger deploy previews.
Azure DevOps. In your project’s settings under Service hooks, add webhooks for these Azure DevOps events using the Netlify webhook address as the Payload URL:
Ensure that you set webhooks for your repository with the default
[Any] branch setting. Once configured, these webhook events can trigger production and branch deploys on your watched branches.
Netlify Dev brings the functionality of your Netlify production environment directly to your local machine. It provides a proxy server that includes edge logic for custom headers and redirects, environment variables, and Netlify Functions. It automatically detects tools and frameworks like Gatsby, Hugo, Eleventy, Next.js, and more to configure a local development server that mimics the Netlify production environment.
Before using Netlify Dev, you must authenticate and make sure your site is linked to a Netlify
siteID. You can do that by setting up continuous deployment with
netlify init or linking your site with
To start a local development server for the build tool you’re using, run the following command from the root of your linked repository:
By default, Netlify Dev runs your project using the configuration and environment variables set for local development with the Netlify CLI. For environment variables, that means those with values set for
all deploy contexts. You can use the
--context flag to run your project with a different deploy context’s settings and variables.
netlify dev --context production
Note that environment variables apply to all scopes when running
To run a shell command within the Netlify Dev environment, use
netlify dev:exec YOUR_SHELL_COMMAND
You can run the following command to share your live development server over HTTPS. This creates a tunnel from your local development server over the internet and allows you to work with collaborators anywhere in the world.
netlify dev --live
Anyone can access the resulting URL as long as the session is open.
Netlify Dev works without configuration for the majority of users, but you can customize Netlify Dev settings in the
[dev] section of the Netlify configuration file.
For information about Netlify Dev port handling, local functions development, and more, visit the Netlify Dev page in the netlify-cli repository.
For more local functions development options in addition to Netlify Dev, check out our docs on how to simulate and debug Netlify Functions in a standalone server.
You can run builds in Netlify CLI to mimic the behavior of running a build on Netlify — including Build Plugins. To execute a build locally, run the following command from the root of your linked repository:
The command will build your project using environment variables set in
netlify.toml and those set using the Netlify UI, CLI, or API. Note that environment variables apply to all scopes when running
netlify build locally.
Make sure your Node.js versions match
If you are using the Netlify CLI to run a build locally, make sure the Node.js version installed in your local environment matches the version set for your build on Netlify. If the versions don’t match, you may encounter errors.
If you’d like to get a summary of what a build will do without taking the time to do a full build, you can use the
netlify build --dry
This command will output a list of all the stages of the build and the behaviors that are configured to run during each stage.
The default build context is
production but you can also use the
--context flag to run a build for a different deploy context.
netlify build --context deploy-preview
This command will run the build as if it is a Deploy Preview, applying any settings and environment variable values specific to that context.
It’s also possible to deploy a site manually, without continuous deployment. This method uploads files directly from your local project directory to your site on Netlify. If builds are stopped, manual deploys are the only way you can update your site.
A common use case for this command is when you’re using a separate Continuous Integration (CI) tool, deploying prebuilt files to Netlify at the end of the CI tool tasks.
To get started with manual deploys, run the following command from your project directory:
The first time you run the command, Netlify CLI will prompt you to select an existing site or create a new one, linking the site for all future deploys.
The following sections describe the requirements and options for manual deploys.
deploy command needs to know which folder to publish. If your project includes serverless functions, it needs to know the location of the functions folder as well. Netlify CLI will look for this information in three places, in the following order:
Here is an example using command flags to set the publish folder and functions folder:
netlify deploy --dir=_site --functions=functions
In both cases, folder paths are relative to the current directory. Note that paths starting with
/ will begin at the computer’s root directory — not the base of your project directory.
By default, the
deploy command deploys to a unique draft URL for previewing and testing.
The default draft URL uses random alphanumeric characters for the subdomain. To customize the subdomain of your draft URL with a unique string, use the
--alias flag with the
netlify deploy --alias=YOUR_ALIAS
--alias with any of your branch names
Ensure the string you use after
--alias= doesn’t match any existing branch names from your site’s repository. The
--alias flag is designed to support draft deploy URLs only and doesn’t create a branch deploy or support our branch subdomains feature. Learn more about this flag in the CLI reference docs.
To do a production deploy to your main site URL, use the
--prod flag (or
-p for short):
netlify deploy --prod
node_modules folders with your dependencies by running the following command in any folder containing
netlify deploy command, Netlify CLI parses each function file to note its dependencies. For each function, the CLI then pulls the required dependencies from the associated
node_modules folder and zips them with the function file for deployment.
If you want to connect your local project or repository to a site already on Netlify, you can skip the initial setup steps above and run the following command from the root of the local directory:
This will add a
siteId field to a new file inside your project folder, at
.netlify/state.json. To unlink your folder from the site, you can remove this field, or you can run the following command from inside the project folder:
Alternatively, you can link to a site by finding the site ID in the Netlify UI, then adding it to your local terminal environment:
NETLIFY_SITE_IDenvironment variable, in your terminal settings or in the UI of a Continuous Integration (CI) tool.
You can create and update site environment variables stored on Netlify with the CLI’s
env command. Any changes made using the CLI will be reflected in the Netlify UI. Environment variable changes require a build and deploy to take effect.
By default, the Netlify CLI deploy context is the local development context (
dev). Unless a different deploy context is specified, CLI commands will get and use variables that have values set specifically for use with the
dev deploy context and variables that have a single value for use across
all deploy contexts.
--scope flags with your CLI commands to set contextual or scope values, or to filter results. You can use both flags in the same command, for example:
netlify env:set API_KEY someValue --scope functions --context production branch-deploy netlify env:list --scope builds --context deploy-preview
To create or update a site environment variable on Netlify, use
env:set with the key followed by a space and then the value. You can only set one value at a time, but you can specify multiple deploy contexts and scopes in a space-separated list (no commas) using the
netlify env:set API_KEY someValue netlify env:set ANOTHER_API_KEY someValue --scope builds --context dev
If you omit the
--context flags when running the
env:set command, the variable is set to all scopes and with the same value for all deploy contexts.
To set one value for
deploy-preview and another value for a branch named
staging, run the command twice:
netlify env:set API_KEY someValue --context production deploy-preview netlify env:set API_KEY someOtherValue --context branch:staging
You can also import environment variables from a
.env file into Netlify using
env:import followed by the filename. The imported variables are set to all scopes and with the same value for all deploy contexts.
netlify env:import .env
To copy environment variables from one site to another, use
netlify env:clone --to destinationSiteId --from sourceSiteID
To retrieve a list of site environment variables stored on Netlify, use
env:list. The CLI gets all variables that have values set for local development with the Netlify CLI (deploy contexts
all) and outputs a list of keys with an option to display their values.
You can request other contextual values using the
--context flag and filter the list using the
--scope flag. You can also use the
--plain flags to retrieve the list in JSON or plain text format, which can be helpful if you want to copy the values into a
.env file locally.
The list will only include shared environment variables if the command is run by a team Owner.
netlify env:list netlify env:list --context branch:staging netlify env:list --scope functions netlify env:list --plain
To retrieve an individual environment variable’s value, use
env:get. The CLI gets the values set for local development with the Netlify CLI (deploy contexts
all). You can use the
--context flag to retrieve a value from another context or the
--scope flag to retrieve a value only if the variable is available to a specific scope.
netlify env:get API_KEY netlify env:get API_KEY --context production
To delete environment variables from Netlify, use
env:unset. This command deletes the specified variable and its values from all deploy contexts. Once unset, these variables will no longer be stored on Netlify or appear in the UI. You can use the
--context flag to delete one value from a specific deploy context instead.
netlify env:unset API_KEY netlify env:unset API_KEY --context dev
To print the full debugging output for a command to the terminal, set the
DEBUG variable before running the command.
On Mac OS, Linux, and some common Windows terminals, add
DEBUG=* to the beginning of the command:
DEBUG=* netlify deploy
If you are using the Windows command prompt (cmd.exe), use
set to set the variable:
set DEBUG=* & netlify deploy
In Windows PowerShell, use
$env: to set the variable:
To get usage tips and learn more about available commands from within Netlify CLI, run the following:
For more information about a specific command, run
help with the name of the command.
netlify help deploy
This also works for sub-commands.
netlify help sites:create
If you have additional questions or ideas for new features, you can start an issue on Netlify CLI’s open source repository. You can also visit our Support Forums to start or join a conversation. We’d love to hear from you!
Recommended for you: Functions
Use serverless functions to run on-demand, server-side code without having to manage a dedicated server.
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